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Saturday 25 October  
Egyptian papyrus
Michel Hoebink's picture
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Leiden, Netherlands
Leiden, Netherlands

The evidence says Muhammad existed

Published on : 25 November 2010 - 11:00pm | By Michel Hoebink (photo: flickr/Zoe52)
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Some sceptical scholars claim that Muhammad did not exist and that Islam is a fabrication made up in later centuries. But Leiden University’s Petra Sijpesteijn has demonstrated from her work on Arabic papyrus manuscripts that their claim is not true.

What was the origin of Islam and what went on at the dawn of Islamic history? In the past, scholars who wanted to research the subject had to rely on the official Islamic version of events which was only written down about 200 years after Muhammad’s death. Only relatively recently has interest grown in more objective but less accessible sources such as coins, inscriptions and texts written on papyrus.

Petra Sijpesteijn, professor of Arabic language and culture at Leiden University, says that this last source is especially important. “The papyri are in fact the only contemporary source for the first 200 years of Islamic history.”

Pioneer
Papyrus manuscripts have been found in their thousands in the sand and at ancient rubbish tips all over the Middle East but especially in Egypt. Dr Sijpesteijn explains that they are often difficult to read because they are partially destroyed, badly written out or in dialect. “But if you can read them, they offer a unique glimpse of ordinary life at the dawn of Islam.”

The study of Arabic papyri is in its infancy. Only a fraction of the hundreds of thousands of available manuscripts have been studied. As far as the work done so far is concerned, the Muslim faithful can set their minds at ease: Dr Sijpesteijn says the texts largely confirm the official Islamic version of events.

Disorganised horde
Dr Sijpesteijn distances herself from the small group of polemical colleagues, known as the ‘revisionists’,  who assert that the Prophet Muhammad probably did not exist. They say the Arabic conquerors were actually a disorganised horde of Bedouins who gained control of half the known world more or less by chance. Islam is said to have been dreamt up 200 years later in Iraq.

“From the papyri, it appears that the Arab conquests were indeed carefully planned and organised and that the Arabs saw themselves as conquerors with a religious mission. They also appear to have held religious views and followed customs which contain important elements of the behaviour and beliefs of later Muslims.

Dr Sijpesteijn says for example that, shortly after Muhammad’s death, there is already mention of a pilgrimage (hajj) and a tax to collect money for the poor (zakat). She has also come across a papyrus text written around 725 which names both the prophet and Islam.

Even so, her discoveries form a potential threat to the image some modern Muslims have of their history. The papyri contradict the belief held by many of today’s Muslims that Muhammad delivered Islam as a sort of ready-made package. “It looks as though Islam in its first centuries developed a form gradually. There was an awful lot of discussion about precisely what it meant to be a Muslim.”

 

Discussion

Anonymous 26 September 2014 - 2:12am

Islam embraces an ideology of violence and rejects human rights and modernity. Islam is bankrupt.

Anonymous 21 August 2014 - 4:03am

Muslim brothers and sisters there is no point in trying to explain thesepeople as Allahu subhanewutallah has mentioned in the holy quran that many peoples hearts are locpked and only if the Almighty wishes he will open their heart towards Allah and that will happen only for the pure hearts not for those corropted and Allah will throw int o the hell fire (people might refuse me but this is the truth not what i am saying quran issaying so friends as mentioned in quran dont be jeolpusy or prouf in the aspect of Islam) please try to study Islam its not gonna do any bad for u thats for sureeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

Father_Of_Anonymous 28 February 2014 - 11:36am

LOLL

Father_Of_Anonymous 28 February 2014 - 11:36am

LOL !

Father_Of_Anonymous 28 February 2014 - 11:36am

Well , Did you read by your self ?????
Or you heard by Whispering by Someone ????
Well , , , Don't Al-legate on someone WITHOUT proof !

Well , I have Proof that ,,,,
Mohammad[saw] didn't marry Aisha[Ra] at age of children !
Well , The exact Age of Aisha[Ra] consume was UNKNOWN !
ON research ! And proof's of facts of History , Including Mohammad[saw] !
Mohammad[saw] marriage at age of nearly when , Puberty exists !
Qur'an DOESN'T support child marriage !

http://www.answering-christianity.com/minimum_age_for_marriage.htm
Well , it's proof !

http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_151_200/ayesha_age_the_myth_of__a_...

Father_Of_Anonymous 28 February 2014 - 11:34am

Well , Did you read by your self ?????
Or you heared by Whispering by Someone ????
Well , , , Don't Allegate on someone WITHOUT proof !

Well , I have Proof that ,,,,
Mohammad[saw] didn't marry Aisha[ra] at age of children !
Well , The exact Age of Aisha[ra] consume was UNKNOWN !
ON research ! And proof's of facts of History , Including Mohammad[saw] !
Mohammad[saw] marriage at age of nearly when , Puberty exists !
Qur'an DOESN"T support child marriage !

http://www.answering-christianity.com/minimum_age_for_marriage.htm
Well , it's proof !

http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_151_200/ayesha_age_the_myth_of__a_...

Father_Of_Anonymous 28 February 2014 - 11:34am

Well , Did you read by your self ?????
Or you heared by Whispering by Someone ????
Well , , , Don't Al-legate on someone WITHOUT proof !

Well , I have Proof that ,,,,
Mohammad[saw] didn't marry Aisha[ra] at age of children !
Well , The exact Age of Aisha[ra] consume was UNKNOWN !
ON research ! And proof's of facts of History , Including Mohammad[saw] !
Mohammad[saw] marriage at age of nearly when , Puberty exists !
Qur'an DOESN"T support child marriage !

http://www.answering-christianity.com/minimum_age_for_marriage.htm
Well , it's proof !

http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_151_200/ayesha_age_the_myth_of__a_...

Rao 22 August 2013 - 12:16pm / India

Could anyone shed any light about any existing detailed history of Arabs, before the advent of Muhammed (PBUH). Let us say, in AD 1, or BC 100, or BC 1000, BC 2000 or AD 200, etc. What were they, who were their kings, what was their religion, both, prior to Jesus and 600yrs after Jesus, which is, before Muhammed. For example, there is some semblance of History in Europe before Christianity was introduced by the returning Roman soldiers. That means there is some documented History of Europe during the BC times. That too only till bout 50BC. Beyond that, even European history is hazy and not documented greatly. But detaching the European Christians and Arabic Christians, my query is for all Arabs, both, Christians & Muslims, about their documented history, before their respective Prophets in entire Arabia. My query is also for the Jews to convey their documented history extended to the BCs prior to Moses. Unlike Hindus and Indians, where we have well documented history about Kings and Kingdoms (not religious people and prophets) well into the BCs (upto 2000BC), and also very clear details of the religion they practiced, which was Hindusim, a religion which is widely practiced till the present day. Can anyone convey the same about Arabs??

seaworthy 30 November 2010 - 8:35pm

What a joke! If Muslims didn't exist then, that would prove that sura's and the rest Koran is a hoax, as war chronical; and Mohammed's wars against 'heathen' Arabs, later his followers against Zoroaster Persians, Christian Byzantium, Hindu India, Buddhist Afghanistan, Christian Spain, Christian Hungary, Servia, Greece, Libanon ...... Jeruzalem conquest took place 'in the first part 7th century from Arabia' :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_conquest_of_Syria.

'Islam didn't exist at the time' is contradicted by historic events from the beginning of Islam. 'Egyptian papyri' - where are the Arabian Peninsula papyri?

Al Razi, of world renown as medical scientist lived in Persia around AD 700 and remarked about Muslims that they 'reacted violently to critique'; and on Quran Razi said:

"You claim that the evidentiary miracle is present and available, namely, the Koran. You say: "Whoever denies it, let him produce a similar one." Indeed, we shall produce a thousand similar, from the works of rhetoricians, eloquent speakers and valiant poets, which are more appropriately phrased and state the issues more succinctly. They convey the meaning better and their rhymed prose is in better meter. ... By God what you say astonishes us! You are talking about a work which recounts ancient myths, and which at the same time is full of contradictions and does not contain any useful information or explanation. Then you say: "Produce something like it"?! (Wikki)

Remarkable is S.A. , called the 'holy land of Muhammed' that doesn't allow archaeological digs in Mekka - nowhere. Unbelievable the Saoedies say that they have 'covered everything with concrete pertaining 'Mohammed' what do the Saoedies want to hide, or is there nothing to hide? Also Muslims do not want Israel's archaeological research underneath (if I am correct) that 'Dome' that covers the old Temple of the Jews.

That Koran is a heresy of Christianity and Judaisme is clear from Koran as the anti-Christ., full of hatred and violence against christians - and Jews.

More suspicious is that in a perfect hot and dry climate, where indeed 'papyri' last for centuries the original (!) Koran is lost. How come that the holiest book in Islam was lost? This at least must mean that those sura's were not important at the time - as is claimed by Muslims. But means there is no evidence of who wrote and spread those thousands of sura's. 200 years later 'they were bundled' but some the blunderende bundelaars (grin) were not sure if they were genuine 'Mohammed', why false sura's must be in Koran, that is also not in chronological order - means the bundelaars didn't know what and when that happened. Koran is besides a HERESY, and an outright theological crime mostly stolen from the New Testament and Old Testament with the contents twisted and dished up as Koran founded on waging war.

That Mohammed wasn't 'holy' can be verified in hadiths that speak of him as a pervert pedophile, a child molester, a rapist of women, and robber of caravans, a mass murderer. Koran is furthermore a disaster and criminal by having brought back stoning to death, child marriages, whipping, cutting off hand and feet of a repeating thief, forbids apostacy, allows multiple 'marriages' for the Muslim man. All of these in Koran were then made law in 'holy sharia' law to gruesome disastrous criminal effect - particularly for Muslims; and Muslim women.

I wish Muhammed had never been born; and Dante Allighieri in canto 28 rightly placed Mohammed in Hell - near the devil himself! Hell is that Mohammed still serves as example for the rape of small muslim girls, also condoned in that 'holy Koran' 'girls can marry from the age of menstruation' - the age of their 'husband' is not stipulated.

Abdulah mohammad 3 May 2012 - 2:13pm / australia

hellow my name is abdul

What u wrote is disrespectful
first of all the quran actually talks about what jesus and mary and in no point does it say anything bad about them so this statement ' That Koran is a heresy of Christianity and Judaisme is clear from Koran as the anti-Christ., full of hatred and violence against christians - and Jews' is false

secondly if muhammed was a sex addicted man like u's think because he had 12 wife's
then why did he only have 6 children(4 daughter's and 2 son's who died young)because as far is know they didn't have contraceptions back then and allof his children were with the same wife.all his other wife's he married for political rasons or to save them , the 10 year old girl he married was only because the mother was hated by her husand who had left her(the mother) and her daughter to die but muhammed maried her so that he could help her ( because in islam men must respect women they are not allowed to start talking and start helping eachother without marrige)so he married her but her daughter who now was now was alone because at the time children had to go with thier fathersnot with thier stepfathers so he married her so he could look after her not so he could sex with her .

anyone who reads this must be person who truly believes in god , so I say ood luck and if you truly are seeking the truth then god will lead u on the right path and I advise u if u are truly seeking the truth that reading the quran and the bible with the intent of finding god will help u on ur path inshaallah

Anonymous 23 September 2012 - 9:53pm / UK

Muhammad married Ayesha whenshe was 7 and had sex with her when she was 9. Would YOU allow your daughter to marry and have sex with a 55 year old man at that age??? Muhammad also condoned sex with slaves. He also prohibited singing (except at weddings) and playing music (except a drum at weddings)...he also forbid paintings of living things. What NONSENSE is this??? Did God give humans the talent to provide beauty through their art and musical ability for NO REASON??? Notice that Muhammad happened to be the ONLY person to receive Gods messages.....a bit strange don't you think?? If I came and told you I had received Gods message you'd think me a nutcase - or at best deluded. This is what Muhammad was!

Anonymous 14 May 2013 - 3:44am / uk

your talking about the heithes right .secound sorce form the Quran
and when it comes to numbers not the best sorce to drive a concluson from something your trying here. so ilogcal aggmentison dosnt show anything and even lets say fro the sake of aggment she was young in age. so ? ..
many people married young make then. you wanna be the juge of a age ilravent ? ..

Anonymous 23 September 2013 - 10:22pm / India

Mohammed was a blood-thirsty tyrant who raped a 9 year old girl and invented the punishment of cutting off the hands and feet of petty criminals. All things practiced by devout Muslims to this day, but importantly, not by any other major religion no matter how poor and uneducated they may be.

Now Quran says on women
Selling a wife is perfectly ok
“And if ye wish to exchange one wife for another and ye have given unto one of them a sum of money (however great), take nothing from it” Sura 40:20
Women are worth half a man
“To the male the equivalent of the portion of two females, and if there be women more than two, then theirs is two-thirds of the inheritance, and if there be one (only) then the half.” Sura 4:11
“Unto the male is the equivalent of the share of two females.” Sura 4:176

If women got raped her testimony in court isn’t enough, three Muslim women need to come forward as witnesses to convict one Muslim man of rape.If the women were atheists, they’d need at least 17 atheist women willing to come forward as witnesses to get a rape conviction on a single Muslim man. If you’re a woman and you’re raped by a Muslim in a Muslim country the consequences for failing to prove a charge of rape include being stoned to death for adultery so best not to complain if you’re raped.

Muslims aren’t allowed to pray with their asess facing Mecca because it might hurt their God’s feelings: hence they face Mecca to pray,coz Koran sees the world as flat.
Earth is not flat and consequently their asess
Think of every Islamic dominated country and can you think of one of them that doesn’t have a bloody history of late? Besides Indonesia, none of them have a stable democracy, and in the case of Indonesia it’s still a young democracy that’s frequently rocked by religious violence.

Islam is dangerous, and anyone who tells you otherwise needs to read the Koran, read these statistics and reconnect with reality. The sooner Islam is abolished the sooner we’ll have world peace and it won’t be abolished if we don’t recognise it as a problem that needs fixing. So pull your head out of your politically correct arse and reconnect with reality: Islam is a disease, it has no place in a civilised society and it isn’t racist to say such things.

Father_Of_Anonymous 28 February 2014 - 11:33am / India

Well , Did you read by your self ?????
Or you heared by Whispering by Someone ????
Well , , , Don't Allegate on someone WITHOUT proof !

Well , I have Proof that ,,,,
Mohammad[saw] didn't marry Aisha[ra] at age of children !
Well , The exact Age of Aisha[ra] consume was UNKNOWN !
ON research ! And proof's of facts of History , Including Mohammad[saw] !
Mohammad[saw] marriage at age of nearly when , Puberty exists !
Qur'an DOESN"T support child marriage !

http://www.answering-christianity.com/minimum_age_for_marriage.htm
Well , it's proof !

http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_151_200/ayesha_age_the_myth_of__a_...

Yo Mama 2 August 2014 - 1:47am / My House

Using the bible being ok with it as an excuse for your "prophets" child molestation is a shitty excuse at best. Islam is full of terrorist, as much as a third of the total world population of Muslims, who enforce child marriage and other shit permitted by the Quran and shariah law.

Thomas Milo 30 November 2010 - 1:12am / Nederland

Petra Sijpesteijn is digging through piles of unread papyrus fragments from the formative 7th and 8th centuries in Egypt. She finds nothing that supports the painstakingly detailed traditional accounts of Islamic expansion. She speaks plain unambiguous Dutch but the interviewers don't pick it up. They expect her to confirm that the early Muslims were as peaceful as Dutch politics likes them to be. The answer that her findings don't prove that Muslims existed in these early days, and that there were the usual preparations for war, but that there was nothing Islamic about that, is lost in the religiously coloured reporting."
http://www.radio1.nl/contents/21273-islam-op-papyrus

janv 27 November 2010 - 3:33am / canada

It sounds like all that jesus crap, walking on water, rising from the dead and other bullshit.

Anonymous 27 November 2010 - 10:13pm

It sounds more like you're hearing voices and having hallucinations. Try actually reading the article after you come down.

janv 28 November 2010 - 3:33am / canada

I read the article and it sounds that all the jesus crap, walking on water, rising from the dead a other bullshit

Anonymous 28 November 2010 - 6:34am

How so?

Hiram2 27 November 2010 - 7:27am

Janv, Merry Christmas!

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