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Tuesday 30 September  
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Talea de Castro, Mexico
Talea de Castro, Mexico

Bad cellphone reception? No Internet? Here’s how to build a better connection yourself

Published on : 12 December 2013 - 2:21pm | By Julie Blussé (altermundi.net)
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Sick of waiting around until the telecoms bring you cellphone reception and a solid Internet connection? Techies believes there’s no need to wait around anymore. With cheap new technology and smart policy hacks, they’re helping remote towns build their own communications networks.

One year ago, Talea de Castro, a small mountain town with around 3000 inhabitants, was just like tens of thousands of other Mexican villages. No cellphone reception, and no telecom company interested in changing that.  

Villagers paid steep prices to make calls at local shops that owned the scarce and expensive landlines. When they called loved ones in the US, conversations were kept short: at 1,25$ per minute, such a call could swallow up a big part of their income. Grandmothers with bad knees who needed to deliver a message had no choice but to hike the town’s steep streets.

Talea de Castro had lobbied the telecom giants for change for years, but to no avail. The town was too small and remote to make it profitable to build the required expensive phone towers. Waiting for Carlos Slim was like waiting for Godot.

So when Peter Bloom, a community organizer with Rhizomatica, proposed a crazy plan to help the Taleans build their own community-owned cellphone network, the villagers decided to give it a shot. “At the beginning, we had no idea if it was going to work or not,” Bloom admits. “The tech was very new. So I asked them: are you willing to experiment with us?”

The experiment paid off. Only a few months later, Mexican villages are lining up to become the next Talea de Castro. For only 2 cents a minute, the villagers now call family abroad. At 5 cents a minute, their calls are connected to other Mexican phones. Calls and texts to other users of the community network are completely free.

It has made life in the village a little bit easier in many different ways. Villagers can now order food from a local restaurant. Community radio listeners call in to the studio to give their opinions. Farmers feel safer, knowing they can call for help if they get hurt in the fields. Staying in touch with family abroad is no longer a luxury.

A crazy proposal
Bloom believes that the cheap new technology is “the revolutionary aspect” behind the network. The network is built with a recently developed 5000$ base station that provides reception for a few miles around town and routes remote calls via an Internet connection. Originally lent to the town by the company that built it, the town bought the equipment after it became convinced by its success.

Yet another key aspect was a policy hack, not a technological hack. If you want to set up a cellphone network, you don’t just need equipment that can send and receive calls over airwaves. You also need the government permits to use those airwaves—and these so-called spectrum licenses are all owned by the same telecoms that are reluctant to build out networks to remote villages.

Except, Bloom found, for a small sliver of spectrum that had been left unsold by Mexican government regulators. Rhizomatica approached the regulators and asked for a concession on those airwave frequencies to build non-profit community networks. For free, because as Bloom explains, “We didn’t want to fight to go to auction against the richest man in the world,” referring to Carlos Slim. To everyone’s surprise, the regulator consented.

Rhizomatica now holds a two-year spectrum concession. “Our idea and hope is that once we prove this works, we will try to get a real concession,” Bloom adds. He laughs, “Everybody thinks we’re insane, but everybody thought we were crazy in the first place,” asking for a free temporary license.

Another wavelength
In other parts of the world, techies are avoiding the problem of spectrum licenses altogether by building DYI networks on WiFi. In most countries, WiFi is left unlicensed so that people can set up small wireless networks in cafés or office networks. Since WiFi signals peter out after a few meters, the big telecoms don’t see the WiFi frequency as a commercial threat. 

But with the help of hacked equipment, such as cheap, homemade “cantennae” – antennae built from cans –and altered routers, WiFi signals can be concentrated and extended to a few kilometers. That means an entire village can connect over WiFi if they own smartphones or computers. And by creating a daisy chain of WiFi devices, such a network can also gain access to Internet connections up to 50 kilometers away.

Quintana's network, from above

In Quintana, each WiFi-device forms a node that relays data to other participants in the network. Even if the link to the global Internet would break down, they can still exchange messages within the village’s so-called mesh network for free. 

That’s exactly what Nicolas Echaniz did, a programmer from Quintana Libre, a town of a few hundred people in the center of Argentina. When he moved there with his girlfriend a few years ago, “It was completely disconnected from the Internet,” Echaniz describes. “Even cellphone reception was weak. I had to throw my cellphone in the air to send an SMS.”

But Echaniz, a practical idealist who lived in eco-villages for 15 years, saw a chance to build a type of Internet co-op: he built links out to the nearest Internet uplink, and bought a single connection strong enough to support 70 families. The users share the modest costs.

In Argentina, where a government plan provided laptops to every child in public school, devices with WiFi capability are common. In Quintana, children received almost 300 computers, which made investing a small sum in an Internet connection attractive to poorer families too.  Given the town’s bad cellphone reception, villagers also call each other via VoIP-services which are free over the local network.

Since the success in Quintana, Echaniz and many others have worked together under the moniker of Altermundi, to teach small communities across Argentina to build up their community networks.

Bloom is expanding too, he states: “We have a long list of villages that are interested in getting on board.” He has already wired up a few new villages in the months since Talea’s success.

But he also urges those currently unconnected to take matters into their own hands: “Just go and do it. Most places on earth are not going to be covered because of big companies, but because people will take these tools that are now accessible and pretty inexpensive and get access themselves. There’s nothing holding us back.”

This article was published in Spanish at RNW's Latin-American site.

  • © altermundi.net
  • © altermundi.net
  • © altermundi.net
  • © altermundi.net

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बसप en Mayawati de meest gezochte partij en leider : Google

Politieke partij de Bahujan Samaj Party wint zichtbaarheid online , als men gaat door hun populariteit op de Google search platform .
" Bahujan Samaj Partij ( BSP ) en haar baas Maha Mayawati zijn de meest gezochte partij en leider in het land online , " de zoekgigant in een verklaring op woensdag .

De meest moedige en onverschrokken intellectuelen van Sarva Samaj ( Alle Societies ), waaronder SC / ST / OBC / Minderheden / Poor brahamins , Baniyas , en kashatriyas wie zijn de meeste mensen begonnen met het maken gebruik van het internet in een zeer behulpzame manier voor het welzijn , geluk en Vrede van het hele volk om hen in staat om uiteindelijk te Eternal Bliss bereiken als hun einddoel . De kaders, leiders en aanhangers van deze machtige beweging verwant aan de strijd van Nelson Mandela tegen racisme begon het verplaatsen van deur - tot - deur in alle cabines ter ondersteuning van de BSP 's olifant voor de vierde komende 2014 Lok Sabha Elections.BSP is de enige single grootste partij met haar leden verspreid over het hele land en dat gaat helemaal alleen zonder enige alliantie .

" Ik heb al in de Lucknow rally die Mayawati is mijn gekozen politieke erfgenaam verklaard . " - Kanshiram Ji

Er zal niet elke keuze tussen iedereen en Mayawati voor premier , zou kiezers in haar voordeel .

STEM voor BSP 's OLIFANT Ms Mayawati 's - zal de grootste met 100 % dat deze debatten zal vonk en sturen de publieke opinie . Dat is wat we nodig hebben. Backward communautaire leiders verschillende regionale politieke partijen begonnen campagne ten gunste van BSP .

Nu al zijn geworden ruimdenkend als de mensen van de VS die Obama verkozen als president voor de tweede keer en op dezelfde wijze te steunen mevrouw Mayawati om premier te worden en worden echte partners om de rijkdom van het land te verdelen gelijkelijk over alle delen van de samenleving ' Sarva Samaj ' waaronder SC / ST / OBC / minderheden , slechte brahmanen , Baniyas en kshatrias voor het welzijn van erfgenaam , geluk en vrede als deze beweging is gelijk aan de beweging van Nelson Mandela tot rassendiscriminatie te verwijderen .

De komende verkiezingen van 2014 zijn zeer cruciaal voor het voortbestaan ​​van onze democratie , zoals in deze verkiezingen , kiescommissie is het maken van alle inspanningen om alle in aanmerking komende burgers omvatten als kiezers en verwijderd namen uit de lijst kiezers worden opgenomen . En het publiek ook de open source-code van de electronische stemmachines die niet tamper proof te maken.

Na een ontmoeting met een groep van fondsbeheerders en effectenmakelaars in Mumbai op woensdag , Anil Singhvi , bankier en voormalig directeur van Ambuja Cement , bijgewoond door bijna 50 fondsbeheerders en makelaars , werd gehouden bij Bajaj Bhavan in Nairman Point . Effectenmakelaar Ramdeo Agrawal hebben zich reeds gerealiseerd dat er geen keuze tussen iedereen en Mayawati voor premier gewoon in , de kiezers zou in haar voordeel zijn.

Er is een groot lawaai over verklaren de premier kandidaat door vele partijen . Dit is heel erg tegen ons systeem van democratie , waar eerst de leden van het parlement worden gekozen die op hun beurt de verkiezing van de minister-president. Deze partijen wil de zaken in de richting van het presidentieel systeem van verkiezingen, die verschillende sets van problemen heeft en niet geschikt is voor een land met diversiteit als het onze te nemen .

Een groot deel van de media , social media en deel van de sociale klassen; middenklassen in het bijzonder zijn begonnen met het creëren van een sfeer alsof BSP is de enige oplossing voor onze problemen .

Kumari Mayawati is een Indiaas politicus die diende vier termen als Chief Minister van Uttar Pradesh (UP ) als hoofd van de Bahujan Samaj Partij ( BSP ) , die zich richt op een platform van sociale verandering aan het welzijn van de zwakste lagen van de Indiase samenleving te verbeteren - de Bahujans of geregistreerde kasten / Scheduled Tribes , Andere Backward Classes , religieuze minderheden en de armen brahmanen , Baniyas en kshatriyas . Ze was Chief Minister kort in 1995 en opnieuw in 1997 , toen 2002-2003 en 2007-2012 .

Mayawati opkomst van bescheiden begin is wel een "wonder van de democratie " . In 1993 vormde Mayawati een coalitie met de Samajwadi partij en werd de jongste Chief Minister van Uttar Pradesh op dat moment . Zij was de eerste vrouwelijke Scheduled Caste Chief Minister . In 1997 en in 2002 was ze Chief Minister , de tweede keer voor een volledige termijn .

Mayawati 's ambtstermijn heeft aangetrokken lof . Miljoenen SC / ST / OBC / Minderheden / slechte brahmanen , Baniyas en kshatriyas zien haar als een icoon , en verwijzen naar haar als Behen - ji ( zus ) . Ze werd geprezen voor haar fondsenwerving namens haar partij en haar verjaardagen zijn belangrijke media-evenementen en een symbool voor haar supporters. Ze proberen om de hand over de MASTER KEY dwz hele budget van het land om haar om alle deuren van vooruitgang en ontwikkeling te ontsluiten voor alle samenlevingen ( Sarva Samaj ) voor hun welzijn , geluk en vrede . Uiteindelijk voor hen om Eternal Bliss bereiken als uiteindelijke doel.
2007 : BSP meerderheid
Uttar Pradesh , dichtstbevolkte staat en een van de armste , is de spil in de politiek beschouwd vanwege zijn grote aantal kiezers . BSP won een meerderheid in de Uttar Pradesh parlementsverkiezingen 2007 , het afhandelen kandidaten uit verschillende kasten en religies .

Mayawati werd beëdigd als Chief Minister van Uttar Pradesh voor de vierde keer op 13 mei 2007. Zij kondigde een agenda die gericht op het bieden van sociale rechtvaardigheid om de zwakkere groepen in de samenleving , en werkgelegenheid in plaats van verdelen van geld aan de werklozen . Haar slogan was " Uttar Pradesh " ( " Northern Province " ) te maken in " Uttam Pradesh " ( " Uitstekend Provincie " ) . Mayawati ingesteld hervormingen om transparantie in het wervingsproces, met inbegrip van de publicatie van de resultaten van de selectie -examens online .

De BSP won 20 zetels in de Lok Sabha van de deelstaat Uttar Pradesh in de verkiezingen van 2009 , het behalen van het hoogste percentage ( 27.42 % ) van de stemmen voor een politieke partij in de staat. De partij werd derde in termen van nationale polling percentage ( 6,17% ) . Op 13 maart 2012 diende zij nominatie papieren voor de Rajya Sabha , en ze werd uitgeroepen ongehinderd op 22 maart verkozen .

Op 15 november 2011 , Mayawati 's kabinet goedgekeurd partitioneren van Uttar Pradesh in vier verschillende staten voor betere administratie en bestuur .

Mayawati heeft gezien tot aan de oplevering een aantal van haar droom projecten, waaronder het Manvyar Shri Kanshi Ramji Groen (ecologisch ) Tuin ( ingehuldigd maart 2011 ) , de Rashtriya geregistreerde kasten / Scheduled Tribes Prerna Sthal en Green Garden ( ingehuldigd oktober 2011 ) , en de Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Prateek Sthal ( geopend november 2012 ) .

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Fryeijeffery 24 February 2014 - 9:05am / United Kingdom

Network cloud is a type of computing that relies on sharing computing resources rather than having local servers or personal devices to handle applications.

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